News & Announcements
Black Men Who Confront Racial Discrimination and Hide their Emotions at Greater Risk of Depression
Posted: March 19, 2012
Enduring subtle, insidious acts of racial discrimination is enough to depress anyone, but African-American men who believe that they should respond to stress with stoicism and emotional control experience more depression symptoms, according to new findings from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The study, Taking It Like a Man: Masculine Role Norms as Moderators of the Racial Discrimination - Depressive Symptoms Association Among African-American Men, was published online in the American Journal of Public Health.
Study author Wizdom Powell Hammond, Ph.D., assistant professor of health behavior in UNC's Gillings School of Global Public Health analyzed data collected from surveys of 674 African-American men, aged 18 and older, carried out at barber shops in four U.S. regions between 2003 and 2010. She found that everyday racial discrimination was associated with depression across all age groups. Younger men (aged under 40) were more depressed, experienced more discrimination and had a stronger allegiance to norms encouraging them to restrict their emotions than men over 40 years old. Furthermore, some men who embraced norms encouraging more self-reliance reported less depression. The results showed associations, not necessarily causation, Hammond noted.
"We know that traditional role expectations are that men will restrict their emotions - or 'take stress like a man,'" said Hammond. "However, the more tightly some men cling to these traditional role norms, the more likely they are to be depressed. "It also is clear that adherence to traditional role norms is not always harmful to men," Hammond said. "But we don't know a lot about how these norms shape how African-American men confront stressors, especially those that are race-related."
The author studied the phenomenon researchers call everyday racism, which is marked not so much by magnitude or how egregious the prejudice and torment were, but by persistence and subtlety. "It chips away at people's sense of humanity and very likely at their hope and optimism," Hammond said. "We know these daily hassles have consequences for men's mental health, but we don't know why some men experience depression while others do not."
Innovations for Recovery: Using a Smartphone App to Intervene Before Relapse into Alcohol Abuse
Posted: March 16, 2012
ACHESS is a mobile phone-based relapse-prevention system that offers support to alcohol dependent people when and wherever it is needed. Developed at the Center for Health Enhancement Systems Studies (CHESS), of which NIATx is a part, the ACHESS smart phone app is now being studied in a randomized clinical trial.
CHESS Researcher Andrew Isham presented some initial findings on the study at the 2011 Medicine 2.0 Congress last September. Read a summary of his presentation. View a video of how the app works. Read more on the NIATx website.
Interested in using ACHESS? Learn more on using ACHESS through the CHESS Health Education Consortium.
New Spanish Language Fact Sheet: El VIH entre los afroamericanos (HIV among African Americans)
Posted: March 14, 2012
African Americans face the most severe burden of HIV of all racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US). Despite representing only 14% of the US population in 2009, African Americans accounted for 44% of all new HIV infections that year. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released a fact sheet in Spanish titled El VIH entre los afroamericanos (HIV among African Americans). The fact sheet lists statistics and graphs on new HIV infection, diagnoses and deaths from HIV and AIDS, challenges for prevention that relate specifically to the African American community; these include -- highest prevalence rates; socioeconomic factors; lack of knowledge; stigma, fear discrimination, and negative perceptions about testing. In the end current CDC prevention campaigns are explained, some of the initiatives are:
SAMHSA & MacArthur Foundation Address Behavioral Health Needs of Youth in Juvenile Justice
Posted: March 13, 2012
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation are collaborating on a $1 million effort targeting the behavioral health needs of youth in contact with the juvenile justice system. The project is aimed at diverting youth with behavioral health conditions from the juvenile justice system to community-based programs and services.
Most youth in contact with the juvenile justice system have a diagnosable mental, substance use, or co-occurring disorder. Studies have found that 60-70 percent of youth in the juvenile justice system met criteria for a mental disorder; over 60 percent of these youth also met criteria for a substance use disorder. Of those youth with mental and substance disorders, almost 30 percent experienced disorders so severe that their ability to function was highly impaired. Youth with these mental, substance use and co-occurring disorders often end up unnecessarily in the juvenile justice system rather than getting the proper help they need – help that could vastly improve their prospects for attaining healthy, productive lives.
Under this initiative, up to eight states will be selected competitively to participate based on their commitment to improving policies and programs for these youth. This innovative collaborative effort integrates SAMHSA’s Policy Academy mechanism, which brings together state leadership teams to learn about effective interventions and the latest research, and the MacArthur Foundation’s Models for Change Action Network strategy, which supports and links teams working on similar innovations in policy and practice. These combined resources will support state efforts to develop and implement policies and programs that divert youth away from the juvenile justice system early.
Read more on the SAMHSA website.
Report on Mental Health Care Identifies Need for Research on Immigrants
Posted: March 12, 2012
The methods psychologists and other health-care providers are using to treat immigrants to the United States need to be better tailored to deal with their specific cultures and needs, according to a task force report released by the American Psychological Association -- Crossroads: The Psychology of Immigration in the New Century, Report of the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration.
The report of APA's Presidential Task Force Report on Immigration presents a detailed look at America 's immigrant population and outlines how psychologists can address the needs of immigrants across domains of practice, research, education and policy. "We have identified an urgent need in scientific research and clinical settings to consider the unique aspects of immigrant populations, particularly with regard to culture and language," said task force Chair Carola Suárez-Orozco, PhD.
Immigrants face psychological implications of racism, discrimination and racial profiling, while their expressions of distress vary across cultures, the report points out. Most evidence-based psychological treatments currently used with immigrants are based on research performed with samples consisting of ethnic minorities rather than immigrants, according to the report. Current psychological assessment tools, such as tests and batteries, often are not adapted to account for culture and language, it notes. "Rather than approaching culture through a preset middle-class American framework, the research should use methodologies to understand the worldview of the immigrant population," the report states.
"The implications are that programs to assist immigrants with adapting to life in their new country must value both the need to learn the ways of the new culture and the need to maintain a connection with the old," said Suárez-Orozco.